A version of this roughly half hour presentation was originally delivered to The Creative Academy for Writers. Why? Because my esteemed brother-in-law, Brian Wyvill (author of the highly entertaining time travel/seafaring novel The Second Gate), asked me to whip this up. And who can say no to Brian? I mean other than his wife, my sister Shawna. Well, plenty of people, maybe. But not me, he’s just too charming, so I created this, and presented it to the academy. And then I thought, why not just make it available to everyone?
So here it is.
Make of it what you will.
Now look. I don’t pretend to be the last word in creating audiobooks. This is just some general advice based on my experience as a sound guy and someone who’s recently turned a novel and a bunch of short stories into audiobooks. My goal is simply to provide a practical overview of how to make an audiobook, based on my experience.
I talk about the equipment you need, the preparation required, how to record your audiobook, a bit about editing and mastering your audiobook, and a bit about what distributors like Audible are looking for in terms of quality control.
Here’s what Inner Diverse, the second book in the Splintered Universe series is, all about:
In Book Two of this metaphysical space thriller trilogy, detective Rhea Hawke continues her quest for truth and justice in a world that is not what it seems. Rhea’s search takes her to the far reaches of the known universe from the Weeping Mountains of Horus to the blistering deserts of Upsilon 3. Amidst the turmoil of an imminent extra-galactic war, Rhea holds the key even as those she trusts betray her. No one is what they seem…
And here is an interview with the narrator of the audiobook version, Dawn Harvey:
1. When did you know you wanted to be an audiobook narrator?
I knew I wanted to be an audiobook narrator the first time I ever heard an audiobook. I don’t know when that was but probably 30 or 40 years ago (now I’m just showing my age). Despite wanting to be an audiobook narrator, it wasn’t something that I could realistically consider. At that time, audiobooks were only produced in studio, and that pretty much meant either New York or LA for the North American market. Being Canadian, I would have had to obtain a visa to work in the US and that would have been difficult to do as I could not acquire the experience necessary to qualify for it. So, I didn’t give it a second thought.
Much later in life, I began to do voiceover work and, while exploring the multitude of genre options available to pursue in the voice over world, I was quite predictably drawn to audiobooks. My first audiobook narration class was in 2009 in Los Angeles with Scott Brick, a grand master in the industry, and I have never looked back. I knew immediately that audiobook narration was my home. I do work in other areas of voiceover, as well as doing film work, and I continue to receive acting and technical training in all mediums, but I have concentrated much of my continuing education and networking in the area of audiobooks since taking that first class with Scott.
With advanced technology came high quality, reasonably priced home studios making voiceover, including audiobooks, a career you can pursue no matter where you live. I can record from my home studio anywhere on the planet for clients from anywhere on the planet. That has made it possible for me to do the job that I may have been born to do.
2. How did you wind up narrating audiobooks? Was it always your goal or was it something you stumbled into by chance?
I began performing at a young age, falling in love with both acting and singing. In high school, while pursuing singing and acting, I discovered the law. It became a second love and I couldn’t decide whether to become an actor or a lawyer. So, I just did both!
In the late ‘90s, I ran into some serious problems with my knees. I was way too young for those kinds of problems, so I started to panic a little bit about how I would be able to perform if I could no longer walk. Where I live, the opportunities are rare enough without throwing a wheelchair into the mix! After an initial period of panic (it felt like years but it probably wasn’t), I had a eureka moment and realized that I could become a voice actor and perform just fine. So, within a few years, I began studying voice acting.
3. A lot of narrators seem to have a background in theatre. Is that something you think is essential to a successful narration career?
Today, everyone with a USB microphone and a computer thinks they can be a voice actor. But, they neglect to give weight to one very important word in the name of the profession, and that is “acting.” The profession and the art is “voice acting.” First and foremost, it is acting and that applies to every genre of voiceover.
And you should be thankful for that because when non-actors are hired to do this work, the outcome is often less than satisfying. In the corporate world, I have had to watch many eLearning videos on different aspects of the company and it was evident when an administrative employee did the narration as part of their job vs. when it was voiced by a professional actor. The former is often a very painful experience, through no fault of the employee. Acting requires training or, at least, good acting does!
When I consider the various forms of acting, it seems clear to me that audiobook narration is one of the most difficult acting jobs there is. Usually when we act, we only need to know how be one person. So, we work to understand that one person’s history, wants, needs, challenges, relationships to others in the story, and their part in the larger story that is being told. When we narrate an audiobook, we are everyone in the story and we need to understand the story from every character’s point of view. We need to figuratively leap in and out of people’s heads, including the narrator’s in the case of third-person fiction or non-fiction. We need to understand and portray every character’s personality, desires, problems, relationships, etc., to one degree or another, depending upon their importance to the story being told – not to mention that each must have their own “voice.” It is extremely focused and detailed work.
If you are working from a home studio, you are usually also the director and the engineer. So when you actually do the recording part of audiobook narration, you are already wearing three hats; the engineer, the director and the actor. And as the actor, you are the person who must know all of the technical details of recording such as being aware of mic proximity, deftly handling page turns, listening for outside noise while you record, etc. You are also the narrator, and every other character in the book, responsible for understanding every character and for mastering pronunciations and accents to the point where they sound natural to the characters who are saying those words or who have that accent. So, if you think of the Game of Thrones, the first book in the Fire and Ice series, for example, the narrator created 224 different characters. I haven’t seen any research on the point, but I would venture to guess that an average novel would have between 30 and 50 characters if you take into consideration all of the minor or tertiary characters such as the server at the restaurant or the taxi cab driver. So, even in an average audiobook, the narrator must have either a very large toolbox full of characters or a method to create them.
When performing non-fiction, it is important to remember (as one of my coaches, Sean Allen Pratt, is fond of saying) that non-fiction is not non-acting. I’m sure we’ve all had the teacher who was so dry and boring that we could barely stay awake during their lecture, even if we were interested in the subject! That’s what happens when you try to listen to a non-fiction book narrated by a non-actor – a potentially dangerous situation if you’re driving!
So, the short answer is ‘yes,’ acting training is imperative in this work. But, that doesn’t mean that if you haven’t spent a career as an actor you can’t do this work. It’s just something that you will have to work harder at learning than someone who already has an acting background. Some people, through raw talent or other life experiences, need little coaching to get to a place where their acting skills begin to shine. And, like any profession, the training is never finished. We are always striving to get better; so the acting training should continue for as long as you continue to do the work.
4.Are you an audiobook listener? What about the audiobook format appeals to you?
Yes, I am an avid audiobook listener. I used to listen to audiobooks with my kids anytime we went on long drives, long before I realized it was an occupation that I could now pursue. Once I began working on becoming a narrator, I became a constant listener. I look for reviews of books that have won awards. When I find a review noting that a narrator is doing something that I want to master, I listen to that book to gain more knowledge about my craft. The bad thing about doing that is, because I’m usually only listening to the very best narrators, the storytelling is so good that I often forget I’m supposed to be paying attention to technique and just get lost in the story! In addition, I listen to non-fiction books on topics I’m exploring either personally or professionally. And, of course, anything written by Stephen King or John Grisham!
Part of the rise in the popularity of audiobooks derives from the fact that we all carry devices that can contain entire libraries. Anytime you are doing a task that uses a different part of your brain than where language is found, such as gardening, cleaning, ironing, exercising, driving, painting, knitting, etc., you can be listening to an audiobook. So, where I used to have shelves filled with books I didn’t have time to read, I now have apps filled with audiobooks I don’t have time to listen to! However, even with my overburdened schedule, I still manage to listen to about a book a week. Even if I’m just driving to the store – 10 minutes here and 10 minutes there adds up during the course of a week. I could never manage to read as much as I do were it not for audiobooks. And, if you actually have time to read as well, with whisper sync you can read when it’s convenient and then listen when it’s not because your book syncs to the place in one medium where you left off in the other. It’s the best of all worlds, really.
5. How closely do you prefer to work with authors?
The closer the better. I have such admiration for authors in general (now that I’m becoming one, that statement may start sounding a bit self-serving – LOL). I am in such awe and wonder over the ability of people to pull these incredible stories out of their imaginations, creating such real worlds occupied by real people and real emotions. Whatever we do as actors, we are only piggybacking on the creativity of the people who actually write the stories. So, if for no other reason than that I’m a fan girl, connecting with authors is always a treat for me.
In terms of the specific books that I’ve narrated, being able to work directly with the author allows me to have their input while creating their world and realizing their truth. Collaboration always results in a better product, so if the narrator and the author can collaborate, the resulting work will be so much more satisfying for the listener as well as for the author. I never want the author to listen to a recording I have done and flinch or cringe at anything. A simple point to illustrate this has to do with the name of the central character in the books written by Nina that are the subject of this podcast. The lead character’s name was spelled R-H-E-A. That could either be Ree-a or Ray-a. The audience doesn’t care which way I say it as long as it is consistent. However, if Nina had Ree-a in her head when she wrote the books and I kept saying Ray-a, or vice versa, it would bother her every time she listened to the books. I don’t want that for her. I want her to love the audiobook even more than she loved the written book because it is more; it has had a whole other layer added to it, and she should enjoy the benefit of that additional layer. So, I was very grateful for the opportunity to be able to collaborate with Nina and get her input on how those words sounded. Particularly as this series contains so many foreign, scientific and invented words. Again, the audience wouldn’t care so long as I was consistent, but I wanted it to be Nina’s vision and Nina’s words, not mine. I am but the vessel through which her story flows!
6. If so, which ones stand out to you most, positive or negative?
Yes, I do. Acting is a very subjective art. Acting in audiobooks is no different. Some people will love what you do while other people will hate the exact same performance. You can’t please all of the people all of the time so it’s important not to allow the reviews to damage you personally. For example, I had a book where two reviews in a row said the exact opposite things. One said something to the effect of “I do not know who hired this narrator but she should never work again. Listening to her is like listening to nails on a chalkboard.” The very next review said “I could listen to this narrator read to me forever. I’d listen to her read the phone book.” Must have both been older listeners; do they even have chalkboards or phone books anymore? In any event, this was the exact same book. So, you have to take those completely unconstructive comments with a grain of salt. I do, however, look for patterns. If I find a similar comment across numerous reviewers or numerous books, I will pay attention and consider that they may have a valid point and that this may be an area I need to work on. So I do see utility in the reviews.
And of course, people in general don’t take the time to say something unless it’s negative so the star count is probably a better indication of how much people enjoy your work. I know that I am guilty of not writing reviews. I almost always mark the star count but I’m generally driving when I’m listening to audiobooks so I can’t really take the time or risk involved to write a review at that particular time and I almost never get back to it later. A star I can pull off at a red light!
We are always appreciative of those who take the time to say something positive, and I will often use those reviews in my marketing materials. As actors, we are always looking for work so keep those (positive) cards and letters coming!
7. Who is your “dream author” that you would like to record for?
Well, of course, Stephen King. I fell in love with his work when I was 17 and read The Stand overnight in one sitting. I am truly his number one fan – and please feel free to remind him of this! I’m working on sending a message out to the universe for him to review my work and connect with me for the next book he releases that requires a female narrator. Most of his writing is male first person or male-third person. And understandably so. He does, however, occasionally write books that are suitable for a female narrator. And so, Stephen, the next time you do that, I’m your girl. And, of course, John Grisham. As a lawyer and an audiobook narrator, wouldn’t I be the perfect choice for John? So John, the next time you need a female audiobook narrator, here I am. And, for both of you, I will record these books for no upfront fee whatsoever. If you would like to just assign me one quarter of a percent of sales? One tenth of a percent? I’m pretty sure I’d be good with that. LOL
8. What do you say to those who view listening to audiobooks as “cheating” or as inferior to “real reading”?
I would say that they need to do some research because they would soon find that listening is not cheating. In fact, used in combination with the paper/e-book, it is an absolutely brilliant way for children to learn how to read and properly pronounce words and for everyone to improve their vocabulary and pronunciation. As a narrator, and I know I am not alone in this, a proof listener once caught me on a word that I had apparently been pronouncing wrong my entire life (and I have found some of those myself prior to handing it off to the proofer – look up “shone.” Most of us say it wrong!). Some words we have only read but never heard. We decide in our heads the first time we see that word how it is to be pronounced and then we always “hear” it that way when we read it. Sometimes we may look the word up when we first hit it but often we don’t. When listening to an audiobook, we hear the proper pronunciation of words (assuming the book had good narrators and proof listeners). When listening to an audiobook while following along with the written words, children not only learn proper pronunciation, they are able to listen to material that is several grade levels above their reading ability, increasing their reading, written and spoken vocabulary. Particularly for boys, who are generally not as interested in reading as girls in the first place, this means that they have access to a much broader range of materials and this may increase their interest in reading. And since earlier research has shown that better readers are better students, we are doing children a great disservice if we are NOT including audiobooks in their very early education.
So I would say that those people are simply wrong and missing out on a really great thing!
9. What bits of advice would you give to aspiring audiobook narrators?
This is a very competitive business, as is all acting work. You need to understand that it is in fact “acting” and that having a “nice voice” is not necessarily part of the equation in determining whether or not you will be successful. If you are an actor, and even a voice actor, you will need to spend time studying this art form, as it is as different a medium as stage is to film. If you have no acting experience, you will need to train in acting. There are some “naturals” but, for most people, there’s a lot to learn, not the least of which is finding the courage to wear your heart on your sleeve and open yourself up completely for inspection by the world. That is the “bravery” that is being referred to when people talk about how brave actors are. Most people try to hide their pain and weaknesses; actors must bare it for the world to see, or hear in the case of audiobooks.
And, as many of us work from home studios, the learning involves many other areas. A fairly comprehensive list of the other skills you will need to develop if you don’t already have them include:
deciding what hardware and software to buy
understanding how to use the software and hardware
building and using a home studio
understanding proper recording technique from both sides of the mic
conducting online research
pronouncing words in foreign languages (like you are a native)
learning how to emotionally connect with material
running a small business, and
The marketing part of the business is key, whether to increase sales of royalty share books, or to attract authors and publishers to your narration services. This is a business like any other and needs to be treated as such. Acting in general is different from most businesses because actors are constantly looking for work, even when they’re working. It’s nice to get repeat clients, and I think the audiobook world in general is probably better at that than many other types of acting work, but it is part of the job to do the marketing and treat it like a business, not an “art.” The actual narration isan art but if they don’t know that you’re out there, they don’t hire you. If they don’t hire you, you don’t eat. If you don’t eat, you need to change jobs.
It’s important to realize that the audiobook industry is small and relationships are important. The producers are regularly inundated with solicitations from people who have a computer and a mic and think, “Anyone can read out loud.” These are busy people who can’t afford to have their time wasted. They are very open to, and always looking for, new talent, but they also have to be protective of their time. They don’t have time to work with difficult or untrained people. And you need only one opportunity to make a really bad impression. They need to know that you are capable of doing good work for them, that you follow the rules, and that you meet deadlines. They care equally that you are a good person, that you are easy (better yet, fun) to work with, and that you make their job easier, not harder.
So, you absolutely need to learn good audiobook narration skills. But you still won’t get enough work to make a career out of this if you don’t also take care of all of the other matters. This is not a career for people who want to cut corners and take the easy way. This is very detailed, focused, concentrated work. If that is not the kind of work you like doing, this probably isn’t the job for you.
On the other hand, if this work suits you, it is eminently rewarding. This kind of storytelling is powerful and has an amazing reach, meaning you can have an amazing reach and impact. And, you are creating a legacy with every title you narrate. These are books. They’ll be around for as long as we are (or longer but who’d be here to listen?).
I narrated “Alice in Wonderland” a few years ago thinking North Americans might like to have a North American accented version for their kids to listen to. Unfortunately, it came out a week before Scarlett Johansson’s recording of a North American accented version, so you can imagine how that went for me! But my cover is absolutely beautiful and hers is not, so take that Ms. Johansson (it really is, here’s a link – Alice)! In any event, that book is never going to go out of style and assuming we don’t completely destroy the planet first, my grandchildren’s grandchildren’s grandchildren will be able to listen to me read it to them. That’s pretty special, and not something common in voiceover work. It’s a pretty amazing job, but you need to be committed, resourceful, willing to accept criticism, able to withstand rejection (standard actor stuff), willing to work to improve, and just willing, in general, to work really hard. For some of us, it is completely worth it. In any event, it all feels like play when it is your passion and I get to say “People pay me to read stories to them!” Does it get better than that?
This made a lot of sense. Audio books are a booming business these days, and it just makes sense to have your book available in as many formats as possible. Also, I’ve been an audio guy since the age of sixteen when I got my first job announce-operating at CJRW in Summerside, PEI, later making my living as an audio technician/recording engineer for CBC Radio for nineteen years.
Doing sound effects in Studio 212 back in my radio drama days at CBC Radio
For an entire ten of those nineteen years at CBC Radio I made radio plays and recorded and edited tons of short fiction re-purposed for the medium of radio. I remember recording a radio-friendly version of Brad Smith’s novel All Hat over the course of a week or two.
So you would think that I would know what is involved in such a recording. Unfortunately, all my experience did was give me a wildly over-inflated sense of my own abilities. Yes, I did (more or less) possess all the skills required to produce an audio book. But somehow I completely failed to appreciate just how much work was involved in doing it all myself, and how demanding some of that work was.
When Lorina suggested I do the audio book, I truly thought I would be able to knock it off in a couple of weeks. Because I could read, I could record, and I could edit. Thinking back, I was pretty sure we’d done All Hat in a week or two.
It’s laughable, really.
Because thinking back on it a little more carefully, I’m pretty sure that the version of All Hat we produced was an abridged version, and it took four of us to do it: a recording engineer, a producer, an actor, and somebody to adapt it. Five people, if you include the casting director. And all I did was record it (I may have edited it, but I don’t really remember). I certainly didn’t read it.
Anyway, turning my novel into an audio book was a great excuse to gear up, so I went out and bought a mic, a mixer, and some other peripherals. I had a week of vacation time coming up and figured I could squeeze all the recording in then, and edit at my leisure afterwards, on evenings and weekends.
After one week of recording though, I only managed to record ten chapters. My wife attributed this to my propensity to get up late, linger over breakfast reading the Toronto Star, casually walk the dog, and then get started recording around 11am. All of this was true. Add to that trains going by, planes flying overhead, neighbours noisily draining pools, and mysterious noises with no obvious provenance interfering with the recording when I finally did get around to it, and you can see why the process took a bit longer than expected. Worst of all, though, was my inability to read more than half a sentence without making a mistake.
Turning a novel into an audio book was a much bigger deal than I’d realized.
In fact, what I originally thought would take me two or three weeks to accomplish wound up taking over two hundred hours spread out over eleven months.
Here are a few thoughts on the process while it’s reasonably fresh in my mind, in case anybody else out there is thinking of doing the same thing.
To record my audio book, I settled on a Shure SM7B microphone. I chose this microphone because I had chosen it back in 2007 to be the main microphone for the radio show Q. I’d tested a lot of microphones and it had sounded the best with the host of that show, and it sounded pretty good on me (if I do say so myself). I would have preferred a Neumann U-87 but I couldn’t afford that (it’s about three grand). But the SM7B (at about $500 Canadian) is a fine microphone with an excellent pedigree. Michael Jackson famously used it to record his album Thriller. Its only limitation that I could see is that it’s a dynamic microphone and you need to give it a boost to get decent levels. But this is easily fixed by placing a Cloudlifter in the chain, providing an extra 25dB of gain.
My weapon of choice, the SM7B
An advantage of the SM7B is that it pretty much records what you point it at and rejects most everything else. This was really helpful recording in my basement. When I turned off the air conditioning, made sure no other appliances in the house were running, and closed the door to the basement, the noise floor was almost non-existent, but there could still be some extraneous noise, so it was helpful to have a very directional microphone.
You do have to work the SM7B pretty closely to get a nice, plummy sound. The host I used to work with on Q worked it so closely that I wound up sticking two pop filters between him and the mic to avoid popping. In my case, I used the A7WS windscreen that comes with the mic out of the box plus one pop filter. I still popped a bit, but I had ways of dealing with that, which I’ll come to later.
My fairly straight-forward home studio in my basement.
The rest of my setup was pretty simple. You can see it pictured here. Basically the SM7B plugged into the Cloudlifter, the Cloudlifter plugged into a Steinberg mixer, which in turn is connected to a MacBook Pro via USB. And a pair of decent Sennheiser headphones and a mic stand. I read the script (just a PDF version of the novel) right off the MacBook, flipping back and forth between Adobe Reader and my audio software as required.
I recorded almost everything in Cubase, which came with the Steinberg mixer, but I never really got to like it. I’ve used a lot of audio editing software in my time (D-Cart, Dalet, DaletPlus, Sonic Solutions, ProTools, Audacity) and Cubase just didn’t compare in terms of immediate usability. Probably if I’d taken the time I would have gotten used to it, but when it came time to editing the audio book, I switched to Audacity, which can be downloaded free and is much simpler.
Earlier I mentioned that I couldn’t seem to record half a sentence without making a mistake. This was true in the beginning, and it surprised me. One of the reasons that I thought recording an audio book wouldn’t take too long was because I figured I’d just sit down and read it and do some light editing and that would be it. I’ve had some experience acting and I’ve worked professionally as an announcer/operator at two radio stations (CJRW in Summerside and CFCY/Q-93 in Charlottetown). I thought I could read. Heck, I even thought I could perform. But I couldn’t. Not in the beginning.
The problem was I would read a little bit and then, convinced it sounded horrible, I’d stop and start again. I thought, well, not a big deal, I can edit it all later. But the more mistakes you make, the more editing is required, and eventually all that extra editing adds up to one big editing nightmare.
I got much better with practice and experience, but even at my best I couldn’t get through a chapter without a fair amount of mistakes.
Typically, I recorded each chapter twice. I would get to know the chapter on the first read, and read it better the second time around. If I made a mistake, I’d stop, go back, and correct it right away. This made the editing process much easier later (making up somewhat for the amount of mistakes).
Because I didn’t have a producer, someone standing over my shoulder correcting me, I needed to be careful. If I thought I made a mistake during a passage, I always stopped and re-did it (sometimes the first time was perfectly fine, but better safe than sorry, although it did make for more work). Whenever I hit a word I wasn’t entirely sure how to pronounce, I looked it up online. Most online dictionaries allow you to listen to the word you’re looking up. Interestingly, I included words in A Time and a Place that, although I know perfectly well what they mean, I either didn’t know how to pronounce, or have been pronouncing incorrectly. They are correct in the audio book version, though. I made sure of that.
Sometimes I mangled words or sentences but didn’t discover this until the editing process, which was a pain in the butt, but far from insurmountable. One of the advantages of recording an audio book yourself is that afterwards the actor’s still hanging around if you need him or her.
A typical waveform, this one from Chapter 22 of A Time and a Place.
One of the fun parts of recording this novel myself has been doing the voices. I didn’t have unique voices for all of the characters, but some characters cried out for special treatment. One of the characters, Gordon Rainer, is supposed to speak with a British accent. He was by far the most difficult to get right. I’d once done a play for which I’d been trained to speak with a British accent, but I have no illusions about how accurate I’m able to do it (my British brother-in-law is only too happy to provide reality checks on that point).
I’d always thought of another character, Doctor Humphrey, as having a gruff voice, so I played him that way. And so on. I tried not to overdo it, as it could easily get silly, but I enjoyed the performance aspect of it all.
Like just about every other part of this project, the editing took a lot longer than I expected.
I edited one chapter at a time. It took me on average three to four hours to edit the first pass of each chapter. My chapters average twenty pages. The shortest is seven pages, the longest thirty. Transformed into audio, my chapters run anywhere from eleven minutes to thirty minutes long, averaging about twenty minutes. (Unedited, the raw files for each chapter run anywhere between one hour to two hours long.)
As mentioned earlier, I did all my editing in the free version of Audacity, which worked just fine. It’s easy to learn and I found that I could edit quite quickly and effectively with it. It’s also got a nice little suite of tools for mastering, EQ and so on.
Before editing each chapter, I would do a little processing. A little noise reduction, a little limiting or amplification as required to ensure that I was peaking at -3dB with a maximum -60dB noise floor as required by Audible. I did this at the beginning because if doing any of that introduced any problems, I wanted to catch those problems as I was doing the edit. I didn’t want to complete an edit, then do processing, and have it accidentally introduce issues such as clicks or pops or digital distortion that I might have less chance of catching near the end of the process.
Every chapter required multiple passes to edit. The first edit was mainly to get all the right takes in the right order and clean it up as much as I could. To help speed things up, I created a special template in Audacity’s EQ plug-in to eliminate popped Ps as I encountered them (I found the default EQ template for this too aggressive in Audacity).
Sometimes I encountered mangled words or sentences for which no good takes existed, that I had not noticed during the recording process. These I re-recorded right on the spot. Sometimes it was a bit tricky getting these re-takes to match, but it got easier with practice. It was a matter of getting the inflection and level right. I would tweak the level in Audacity using the Amplify plug-in (always careful not to peak at higher than -3dB), and try to use as little of the re-take as necessary, often cutting halfway through a sentence, or a word, even.
After the initial edit, I would go through the chapter again to clean up weird, extraneous noises such as bits of mouth noise, the cat knocking into the mic stand, or other weird noises such as bumps occurring elsewhere in the house that I hadn’t noticed during recording.
I popped the odd P or two, so I created a specific EQ that I called Subtle Bass Cut to deal with that (and a few popped Bs too)
I took a lot of time to address issues with pacing. I tend to read fast. Left unedited, few would be able to keep up with my reading. I worked hard to address this in the edit. I know that some audio book listeners want their audio books read fast. In fact, they will listen to their audio books at enhanced speeds to get through them quicker. I tailored my pacing for people who listen at normal speeds. If I ever record another one, I’ll try to get it right during the recording. A lot easier than having to fix pacing in the editing process.
Once reasonably certain that I’d addressed all issues in the edit, I would play the entire chapter from beginning to end to make sure that I hadn’t missed any edits, and to ensure that there were no other problems. Only when I felt that the edit was perfect would I consider it done, and share it with my publisher via Drop Box (who will subsequently submit it to Audible). One of my mottos is “If it only exists once in the digital domain, it may as well not exist at all,” so I always sent a safety version to myself via Gmail.
I didn’t keep a really accurate record of how long this project took me, but I estimate each chapter took on average two hours to record, and six hours to edit, master, and double check. That’s 8 hours a chapter times 27 chapters, plus little bits like intros, acknowledgements, and so on. I figure the entire project took about 220 hours. That’s 27 eight hour days. The book itself is ten hours, sixteen minutes and fifty-five seconds long, all told. I took three entire weeks off work and devoted several evenings and weekends to this project. Probably much longer than it should have taken. I read in this quite informative blog post that “your narrator will put in six times more production hours than the final length of the book.” Yeah… took me a bit longer than that.